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Editor's review of the 1973 IAI resolution that there is no valid reason to require a minimum number of characteristics to make an Identification  

1973 IAI Resolution .pdf             1974 IAI Concluding report .pdf

The 1995 Ne'urim declaration validating and modifying the 1973 IAI resolution: 

Summary by Pierre Margot and Ed German

1995 Ne'urim declaration .pdf

Realizing the Full Value of Latent Prints

By Martin W. "Marty" Collins
 California Identification Digest, March 1992

What's The Point?-- An article regarding Ridgeology  and the Scientific Approach. 

 By Dusty Clark-12/15/99 (dustman@latent-prints.com)

A MISTAKEN DNA IDENTIFICATION -  The hazards of not quantifying to a threshold of statistical reliability

 (www.forensic-evidence.com)

Dr. Edmond Locard, The Father of "Ridgeology" counted points and gave qualified conclusions.  

By Dusty Clark-4/21/00 (dustman@latent-prints.com)

Weight Based Evaluations of Friction Ridge Impressions From The Frequency of Various Ridge Events/Characteristics

A New Method of Evaluating Ridge Characteristics- Florentino S. Beltran Finger Print Magazine May, 1955

Development of a Mathematical Formula for the Calculation of Fingerprint Probabilities Based on Individual Characteristics - J.W. Osterburg, etal, Journal of the American Statistical Association, Dec. 1977,vol.72, No.360

The Inference of Identity of Source: Theory and Practice

By Dr. Christophe Champod 

European Fingerprint Standards - Fingerprint Whorld 

Vol 28 No 107 January 2002

International Practices- 2010 -An update to the 2002 report

On the Individuality of Fingerprints

Sharath Pankanti, Salil Prabhakar, and Anil K. Jain

STATE v. David Wayne KUNZE -Court of Appeals of Washington, Division 2.
97 Wash.App. 832, 988 P.2d 977 (1999)

Court holds earprint identification not generally accepted in scientific community

Excerpt from www.forensic-evidence.com

"We agree with and adopt the statements of a commentator who, after noting two generally held tenets–“that no two snowflakes are exactly the same,” and “that no two fingerprints have ever been found to have the same ridge positioning”--states as follows:
"In some quarters, these tenets have been scooped up and extended into a single, all- encompassing, generalized principle of uniqueness, which states that “Nature never repeats itself.”
This principle is probably true, although it would not seem susceptible of rigorous proof. But the general principle cannot be substituted for a systematic and thorough investigation of a physical evidence category. One may posit that no two snowflakes are alike, but it does not immediately follow that no two shoe soles are alike, since snowflakes made in clouds and shoes are not. If no two shoe soles are alike, the basis for this uniqueness must rest on other grounds, and those grounds must be identified and enunciated."

AN ERRONEOUS FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION

Santa Rosa woman identified as Vegas slaying victim turns up alive

The Press Democrat Newspaper September 13, 2002

More information - excerpt from www.clpex.com

A  proposed objective friction ridge Qualitative and Quantitative Individualization Standard weighted on the clarity of ridge features.  Based upon Locard's tripartite rule.         

By Dusty Clark-2/18/03 (dustman@latent-prints.com

California Division IAI  (CSDIAI) 2001 STATISTICAL REPORT:  The past limited statistical models have  been validated by the California DOJ latent database, supporting quantifiable thresholds.

By Dusty Clark 11/27/02 (dustman@latent-prints.com)

FRICTION RIDGE IMPRESSION VALUES

CONCLUSIONS THAT CAN BE DRAWN FROM THE DETAIL PRESENT 

By Dusty Clark 5/16/03 (dustman@latent-prints.com)

A brief analysis of the case of United States v. Crisp (2003) and some musings about its dissenting opinion. From Forensic-Evidence .com  5/5/03

View  the full court decision

It deserves special mention at the outset – as was recognized by the court's majority – that no appellate court has ever held that fingerprint identification evidence and handwriting comparison evidence is inadmissible!

Interpol European Expert Group on Fingerprint Identification - IEEGF2
Method For Fingerprint Identification
 

See other information at http://www.interpol.int

Latent Print Examination and Human Factors: Improving the Practice through a Systems Approach-- The Report of the Expert Working Group on Human Factors in Latent Print Analysis February 2012

THE USE OF POROSCOPY IN THE INDIVIDUALIZATION PROCESS- Added 2/27/04

Roddy and Stosz: Fingerprint Features - Statistical Analysis and System Performance Estimates

Editor  Notes:   1) Pages 5-6 explains the lattice spatial distribution of eccrine sweat gland pores, consistent with the dissemination of heat, opposed to a random distribution. 2) Page 60 demonstrates the unreliable reproduction of pores for use in the individualization process.  3)  Page 44 contains the conclusions of the report.

VICTORIA FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTRE FINGERPRINT BRANCH-Added 3/5/04

STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN

NIFS- National Institute of Forensic Science Australia

Poroscopy and Edgeoscopy  by: Elizabeth Oliver,  CLPE - Added 3/10/04

 Georgia IAI Forensic News Vol. 32, No. 1 June 2002, Page 13-14

POROSCOPY: A METHOD OF PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION REVISITED
April 2000 at www.fingerprints.tk added 4/2/04

Dr. O.P. Jasuja, M.Sc., Ph.D.,P.G.D.C.A Reader in Forensic Science
Head, Department of Forensic Science Punjabi University, Patiala-147 002 India.
Website: punjabiuniversity

LATENT FINGERMARK PORE AREA REPRODUCIBILITY - A. Gupta , K. Buckley and R. Sutton- University of Wolverhampton, UK - Forensic Science International Vol. 179, Issues 2-3  6 August 2008, Pages 172-175

ABSTRACT- The study of the reproducibility of friction ridge pore detail in fingermarks is a measure of their usefulness in personal identification.  Pore area in latent prints developed using cyanoacrylate and ninhydrin were examined and measured by photomicrography using appropriate software tools.  The data were analysed statistically and the results show that pore area is not reproducible in developed latent prints, using either of the development techniques.  The results add further support to the lack of reliability of pore area in personal identification.

INCIPIENT RIDGES 

www.fingerprints.tk added 4/2/04

As defined, these are level 2 detail

"A MATTER OF STANDARDS" A discussion by Arie Zeelenberg - Netherlands Senior Advisor Fingerprints National Police Service, February 16, 2011

Fingerprints-Nerves and Skin, A research articles by Les Bush- December 2011

Do Fingerprint Ridges and Features Within Ridges Change With PressureSusie Richmond Australian Federal Police Forensic Services 2004, A definitive study on the unreliability of level 3 to accurately reproduce during the act of touch.

Improving the Understanding and the Reliability of the Concept of "Sufficiency" in Friction Ridge Examination - By Cedric Neumann, Christophe Champod, Mina Yoo, Thibault Genessay, Glenn Langenburg -December 2013

 

*  NEW  *  NEW *  NEW  NIJ awards Quantitative approach to forensic fingerprint comparison study  *  NEW  *  NEW  *  NEW  
 

November 30, 2009

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) has awarded researchers at Virginia Tech a two-year, $854,907 grant to develop a quantitative approach

to measuring and establishing a standard for "standard for "sufficiency" of information available in friction ridge (fingerprint) patterns.  

 

With issuance of the 1973 IAI resolution which stated, "That no valid basis exists at this time for requiring that a pre-determined number......", the standardization committee strongly recommended a federally funded study of fingerprints.  

Twenty-seven years later a solicitation for such a study was issued.

THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF JUSTICE (N I J) COMMISSIONS SCIENTIFIC STUDY

The grant funding for this solicitation was recalled and the solicitation was rewritten to include all pattern evidence sciences.  This does not infer that friction ridge individualization validation is not needed.

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) has identified the need for validation of the basis for friction ridge individualization and standardization of comparison criteria:

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Basic research to determine the scientific validity of individuality in friction ridge examination based on measurement of features, quantification, and statistical analysis.  

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Procedures for comparing friction ridge impressions that are standardized and validated.  

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Basic research into the individuality of friction ridges requires objective measurement and statistical analysis.

View the solicitation       Open Adobe PDF

View the N I J solicitation clarification letter dated June 20, 2000

THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF JUSTICE (N I J) COMMISSIONS NEW SCIENTIFIC STUDY - - - - -DEADLINE FOR APPLICATION FEBRUARY 25, 2005 - - - - - - -

     "Quantitative Research on Friction Ridge Patterns"

Solicitation Deadline February 25, 2005

View Solicitation    NIJ Link

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